Integrated optical gas sensor based on O-ring resonator and loop waveguide mirror on silicon nitride platform

  • Anna Elmanova ,
  • Ilia Elmanov,
  • Vadim Kovalyuk,
  • Pavel An,
  • Galina Chulkova,
  • Gregory Goltsman
  • a,b,c,d,e,f Department of Physics, Moscow Pedagogical State University (MPGU), 119992, Russia (e)(f)National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow 101000, Russia
Cite as
Elmanova A., Elmanov I., Kovalyuk V., An P., Chulkova G., Goltsman G. (2021). Integrated optical gas sensor based on O-ring resonator and loop waveguide mirror on silicon nitride platform. Proceedings of the 33rd European Modeling & Simulation Symposium (EMSS 2021), pp. 333-339. DOI:


A model of an integrated photonic device based on an O-ring resonator and loop waveguide reflector operated at telecom wavelength (1550 nm) was developed. A well-studied model of the O-ring resonator was used, and added a waveguide loop mirror to reflect radiation to input. The loop design was altered by varying the distance between the loop and the ring resonator. The obtained results can be used for gas-sensing aims if a device is coupled only with one optical fiber, both an input and an output. Such a device can be used in hard-to-reach places where the presence of a person is not desirable or may be even dangerous.


  1. Antonacci, G., Goyvaerts, J., Zhao, H., Baumgartner, B., Lendl, B. & Baets R. (2020) Ultra-sensitive refractive index gas sensor with functionalized silicon nitride photonic circuits. APL Photonics, 5, 081301. ulti-core. Programming Multi-core and Many-core Computing Systems, Wiley
  2. Barrios, C. A. (2009). Analysis and modeling of a silicon nitride slot-waveguide microring resonator biochemical sensor. Optical Sensors 2009. Published.
  3. Bernabé, S., Kopp, K., Volpert, M., Harduin, J., Fédéli, J. M. & Ribot, H. (2012) Chip-to-chip optical interconnections between stacked self-aligned SOI photonic chips. Opt. Express 20, 7886-7894. 
  4. Bogucki, A., Zinkiewicz, L., Pacuski, W., Wasylczyk, P. & Kossacki, P. (2018) Optical fiber micro-connector with nanometer positioning precision for rapid prototyping of photonic devices. Opt. Express, 26, 11513-11518.
  5. Brahim M. (2017) Modeling and Position Control of Piezoelectric Motors. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE).
  6. Chiang, K. S. (1991) Effective-index method for the analysis of optical waveguide couplers and arrays: an asymptotic theory. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 9, 1, 62-72.
  7. Clevenson, H., Desjardins, P., Gan, X. & Englund, D. (2013) Gas sensing using a resilient polymer photonic crystal nanocavity with ultra-high quality factor. CLEO, OSA Technical Digest, AF1J.2.
  8. De Leonardis, F., Soref, R. A., & Passaro, V. M. N. (2017). Investigation of Electric Field Induced Mixing in Silicon Micro Ring Resonators. Scientific Reports, 7(1).
  9. Dong, P., Chen, Y. K., Duan, G. H. & Neilson, D. (2014). Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits. Nanophotonics. 3, 10.1515/nanoph-2013-0023.
  10. Elmanova, A., An, P., Kovalyuk, V., Golikov, A., Elmanov, I., Goltsman, G. (2020) J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1695, 012124.
  11. Green, W., Zhang, E., Xiong, C., Y. Martin, J. Orcutt, M. Glodde, L. Schares, T. Barwicz, C. Teng, N. Marchack, E. Duch, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, N. Hinds, T. Picunko, R. Wilson, and G. Wysocki. (2019) Silicon Photonic Gas Sensing. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper M2J.5.
  12. Haas, J., Artmann, P., & Mizaikoff, B. (2019). Mid-infrared GaAs/AlGaAs micro-ring resonators characterized via thermal tuning. RSC Advances, 9(15), 8594–8599.
  13. Kohler, D., Allegro, I., Wondimu, S. F., Hahn, L., Freude, W., and Koos, C. (2020) Lasing in Si3N4-organic hybrid (SiNOH) waveguides. Opt. Express, 28, 5085-5104.
  14. Kou, J, Xu, F & Lu, Y. (2012) Loop-mirror-based slot waveguide refractive index sensor. AIP, Adv., 2, 042142.
  15. Koushik, K. P. & Malathi, S. (2019) Dual Ring Resonator for Gas Sensing Application. WRAP, 2019, 1-2.
  16. Li, X., Mu, Z., Hu, J. & Cui, Z. (2016) Gas sensing characteristics of composite NiO/Al2O3 for 2-chloroethanol at low temperature. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 232, 143-149.
  17. Luan, E., Shoman, H., Ratner, D., Cheung, K., & Chrostowski, L. (2018). Silicon Photonic Biosensors Using Label-Free Detection. Sensors, 18(10), 3519.
  18. Lydiate, J. (2017). Modelling and simulation of a thermally induced optical transparency in a dual micro-ring resonator. Royal Society Open Science, 4(7), 170381.
  19. Manolis, A., Chatzianagnostou, E., Dabos, G., Pleros, N., Chmielak, B., Giesecke, A. L., Porschatis, C., Cegielski, P. J., Markey, L., Weeber, J. C., Dereux, A. & Tsiokos, D. (2019) Plasmonic stripes integrated in a silicon nitride Mach Zehnder Interferometer for high sensitivity refractometric sensors. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest, JTh2A.94.
  20. Mitarai, T., Eissa, M., Miyazaki, T., Amemiya, T., Nishiyama, N., & Arai, S. (2019). Broadband Si waveguide loop mirror with curved directional coupler. 2019 24th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) and 2019 International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing (PSC). Published.
  21. Mitarai, T., Moataz, E., Miyazaki, T., Amemiya, T., & Nishiyama, N. (2020). Design and measurement of broadband loop mirror with curved directional coupler based on Si waveguides. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 59(11), 112002.
  22. Muñoz, P., Micó, G., Bru, L., Pastor, D., Pérez, D., Doménech, J., … Domínguez, C. (2017). Silicon Nitride Photonic Integration Platforms for Visible, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Applications. Sensors, 17(9), 2088.
  23. Niegemann, J., Pernice, W., & Busch, K. (2009). Simulation of optical resonators using DGTD and FDTD. Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, 11(11), 114015.
  24. Oskooi, A., Roundy, D., Ibanescu, M., Bermel, P., Joannopoulos, J.D. & Johnson, S.G. (2010) MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method. Computer Physics Communications, 181, 687-702.
  25. Passaro, V., Tullio, C., Troia, B., Notte, M., Giannoccaro, G., & Leonardis, F. (2012). Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors. Sensors, 12(11), 15558–15598.
  26. Sharma, T., Wang, J., Kaushik, B. K., Cheng Z., Wei, Z. & Li, X. (2020) Review of Recent Progress on Silicon Nitride-Based Photonic Integrated Circuits. IEEE Access, 8, 195436-195446.
  27. Staline, J., Shanmuganantham, T. (2014) Design And Analysis Of Saw Based Mems Gas Sensor For The Detection Of Volatile Organic Gases IJERA, 4, 3, 254-258.
  28. Sulaiman, A. H., Yusoff, N. M., Abdullah, F., & Mahdi, M. A. (2020). Tunable multiwavelength fiber laser based on bidirectional SOA in conjunction with Sagnac loop mirror interferometer. Results in Physics, 18.
  29. Sun, Y., & Fan, X. (2008). Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development. Optics Express, 16(14), 10254.
  30. Udrea, F. & Gardner, J. W. (2002) SOI CMOS gas sensors. SENSORS, IEEE, 2, 1379-1384.
  31. Wan, C., Gonzalez, J. L., Fan, T., Adibi, A., Gaylord, T. K. & Bakir, M. S. (2019) Fiber-Interconnect Silicon Chiplet Technology for Self-Aligned Fiber-to-Chip Assembly. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 31, 16, 1311-1314.
  32. Wang, Z., Glesk, I., & Chen, L. R. (2018). An integrated nonlinear optical loop mirror in silicon photonics for all-optical signal processing. APL Photonics, 3(2), 026102.